Note 1 - Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2015
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements Disclosure and Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
Note 1: Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
These unaudited financial statements represent the condensed consolidated financial statements of The Joint Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (collectively, the “Company”). These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with The Joint Corp. and Subsidiary consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto as set forth in The Joint Corp.’s Form 10-K, which included all disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles. In the opinion of management, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary to present fairly our financial position on a consolidated basis and the consolidated results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. The results of operations for the periods ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 are not necessarily indicative of expected operating results for the full year. The information presented throughout the document as of and for the periods ended March 31, 2015 and 2014 is unaudited.
Nature of Operations
The Joint Corp. (“The Joint”), a Delaware corporation, was formed on March 10, 2010 for the principal purpose of franchising chiropractic clinics, selling regional developer rights and supporting the operations of franchised chiropractic clinics at locations throughout the United States of America. The franchising of chiropractic clinics is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and various state authorities.
We completed our initial public offering of 3,000,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $6.50 per share on November 14, 2014, whereupon we received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $17,065,000 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses. Our underwriters exercised their option to purchase 450,000 additional shares of common stock to cover over-allotments on November 18, 2014, pursuant to which we received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $2,710,000, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and expenses. Also, in conjunction with the IPO, we issued warrants to the underwriters for the purchase of 90,000 shares of common stock, which can be exercised between November 10, 2015 and November 10, 2018 at an exercise price of $8.125 per share.
The following table summarizes the number of clinics in operation under franchise agreements for the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014:
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Joint Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (collectively, the “Company”), which was dormant for all periods presented.
All significant intercompany accounts and transactions between The Joint Corp. and its subsidiary have been eliminated in consolidation.
Variable Interest Entities
An entity that has a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is referred to as the primary beneficiary and consolidates the VIE. An entity is deemed to have a controlling financial interest and is the primary beneficiary of a VIE if it has both the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and an obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE.
Certain states regulate the practice of chiropractic care and require that chiropractic services are provided by legal entities organized under state laws as professional corporations or PCs. In these states, where we have acquired franchises as company owned and managed, we have entered into management services agreements with PCs to provide on an exclusive basis, all non-clinical services of the chiropractic practice. We have analyzed our relationship with the PCs and have determined that have we do not have the power to direct the activities of the VIE. As such, the activity of the PCs is not included in our consolidated financial statements.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash. We continually monitor our positions with, and credit quality of, the financial institutions with which we invest. As of the balance sheet date and periodically throughout the period, we have maintained balances in various operating accounts in excess of federally insured limits. We have invested substantially all of the proceeds of our IPO in short-term bank deposits. We had no cash equivalents as of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014.
Restricted cash relates to cash franchisees are required to contribute to our National Marketing Fund and cash franchisees provide to various voluntary regional Co-Op Marketing Funds. Cash contributed to the National Marketing Fund is to be used in accordance with the Franchise Disclosure Document with a focus on regional and national marketing and advertising.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
We grant credit in the normal course of business to franchisees related to the collection of initial franchise fees, royalties, and other operating revenues. We periodically perform credit analysis and monitor the financial condition of the franchisees to reduce credit risk. As of March 31, 2015, three franchisees represented 45% of outstanding accounts receivable. As of December 31, 2014, six franchisees represented 56% of outstanding accounts receivable. We did not have any customers that represented greater than 10% of our revenues during the three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014.
Accounts receivable represent amounts due from franchisees for initial franchise fees, royalty fees and marketing and advertising expenses. We consider a reserve for doubtful accounts based on the creditworthiness of the franchisee. The provision for uncollectible amounts is continually reviewed and adjusted to maintain the allowance at a level considered adequate to cover future losses. The allowance is management’s best estimate of uncollectible amounts and is determined based on specific identification and historical performance we track on an ongoing basis. The losses ultimately could differ materially in the near term from the amounts estimated in determining the allowance. As of March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, we had an allowance for doubtful accounts of $81,879 and $81,032, respectively.
Deferred Franchise Costs
Deferred franchise costs represent commissions that are paid in conjunction with the sale of a franchise and are expensed when the respective revenue is recognized, which is generally upon the opening of a clinic.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; major renewals and improvements are capitalized. When items of property or equipment are sold or retired, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in other income.
We capitalize most software development costs. These capitalized costs are primarily related to proprietary software used by clinics for operations and the Company for management of operations. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized as assets in progress until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Software developed is recorded as part of property and equipment. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internal use software is amortized on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life, generally 5 years.
Intangible assets consist primarily of re-acquired franchise rights, and customer relationships. We amortize the fair value of re-acquired franchise rights over the remaining contractual terms of the re-acquired franchise rights at the time of the acquisition, which was approximately 7 years. The fair value of customer relationships is amortized over their estimated useful life of 2 years.
Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of tangible and identifiable intangible net assets acquired in the acquisitions discussed in Note 2. Under FASB ASC 350-10, goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are no longer amortized but are subject to annual impairment tests, and tests between annual tests in certain circumstances, based on estimated fair value in accordance with FASB ASC 350-10, and written down when impaired.
We review our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recovered. We look primarily to estimated undiscounted future cash flows in our assessment of whether or not long-lived assets have been impaired. No impairments of long-lived assets were recorded for the periods ended March 31, 2015 and 2014.
We have established an advertising fund for national/regional marketing and advertising of services offered by the clinics owned by the franchisees. As stipulated in the typical franchise agreement, a franchisee, in addition to the monthly royalty fee, pays a monthly marketing fee of 1% of gross sales, which increased to 2% in January 2015. We segregate the marketing funds collected and use the funds for specific purposes as outlined in the Franchise Disclosure Document. These funds are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets. As amounts are expended from the fund, we recognize advertising fund revenue and a related expense. Amounts collected in excess of marketing expenditures are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets.
Co-Op Marketing Funds
Some franchises have established regional Co-Ops for advertising within their local and regional markets. We maintain an agency relationship under which the marketing funds collected are segregated and used for the purposes specified by the Co-Ops officers. The marketing funds are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets.
We lease office space for our corporate offices and company-owned clinics under operating leases, which may include rent holidays and rent escalation clauses. We recognize rent holiday periods and scheduled rent increases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. We record tenant improvement allowances as deferred rent liabilities and amortizes the allowance over the term of the lease, as a reduction to rent expense.
We generate revenue through initial franchise fees, regional developer fees, transfer fees, royalties, IT related income, and computer software fees, and from our company-owned and managed clinics.
Initial Franchise Fees. We require the entire non-refundable initial franchise fee to be paid upon execution of a franchise agreement, which has an initial term of ten years. Initial franchise fees are recognized as revenue when we have substantially completed our initial services under the franchise agreement, which typically occurs upon opening of the clinic. Our services under the franchise agreement include: training of franchisee and staff, site selection, construction/vendor management and ongoing operations support. We provide no financing to franchisees or offer guarantees on their behalf.
Regional Developer Fees. During 2011, we established a regional developer program to engage independent contractors to assist in developing specified geographical regions. Under this program, regional developers pay a license fee of 25% of the then current franchise fee for each franchise they receive the right to develop within a specified geographical region. Each regional developer agreement establishes a minimum number of franchises that the regional developer must develop. Regional developers receive 50% of franchise fees collected upon the sale of franchises within their region and a royalty of 3% of sales generated by franchised clinics in their region. Regional developer fees are non-refundable and are recognized as revenue when we have performed substantially all initial services required by the regional developer agreement, which generally is considered to be upon the opening of each franchised clinic. Upon the execution of a regional developer agreement, we estimate the number of franchised clinics to be opened, which is typically consistent with the contracted minimum. When we anticipate that the number of franchised clinics to be opened will exceed the contracted minimum, the license fee on a per-clinic basis is determined by dividing the total fee collected from the regional developer by the number of clinics expected to be opened within the region. Certain regional developer agreements provide that no additional fee is required for franchises developed by the regional developer above the contracted minimum, while other regional developer agreements require a supplemental payment. We reassess the number of clinics expected to be opened as the regional developer performs under its regional developer agreement. When a material change to the original estimate becomes apparent, the fee per clinic is revised on a prospective basis, and the unrecognized fees are allocated among, and recognized as revenue upon the opening of, the expected remaining unopened franchised clinics within the region. The franchisor’s services under regional developer agreements include site selection, grand opening support for two clinics, sales support for identification of qualified franchisees, general operational support and marketing support to advertise for ownership opportunities. Several of our regional developer agreements grant us the option to repurchase the regional developer’s license.
Revenues and Management Fees from Company Clinics. We earn revenues from clinics that we operate or manage throughout the US. In those states where we operate the clinic, revenues are recognized when services are performed. We offer a variety of membership and wellness packages which feature discounted pricing as compared with our single-visiting pricing. Amounts collected up front for membership and wellness packages are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized when the service is performed. In other states where state law requires the chiropractic practice to be owned by a licensed chiropractor, we enter into a management agreement with the doctor’s professional corporation. Under the management agreement, we provide administrative and business management services to the doctor’s professional corporation in return for a monthly management fee. When the collectability of the full management fee is uncertain, we recognize management fee revenue only to the extent of fees expected to be collected from the professional corporations.
Royalties. We collect royalties, as stipulated in the franchise agreement, equal to 7% of gross sales, and a marketing and advertising fee currently of 2% of gross sales. Certain franchisees with franchise agreements acquired during the formation of the Company pay a monthly flat fee. Royalties are recognized as revenue when earned. Royalties are collected bi-monthly two working days after each sales period has ended.
IT Related Income and Software Fees. We collect a monthly computer software fee for use of our proprietary chiropractic software, computer support, and internet services support, which was made available to all clinics in April 2012. These fees are recognized on a monthly basis as services are provided. IT related revenue represents a flat fee to purchase a clinic’s computer equipment, operating software, preinstalled chiropractic system software, key card scanner (patient identification card), credit card scanner and credit card receipt printer. These fees are recognized as revenue upon receipt of equipment by the franchisee.
We incur advertising costs in addition to those included in the advertising fund. Our policy is to expense all operating advertising costs as incurred. Advertising expenses were $268,506 and $44,080 for three months ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
We account for income taxes in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification that requires the recognition of deferred income taxes for differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. The differences relate principally to depreciation of property and equipment and treatment of revenue for franchise fees and regional developer fees collected. Deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax consequence for those differences, which will either be taxable or deductible when the assets and liabilities are recovered or settled. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
We account for uncertainty in income taxes by recognizing the tax benefit or expense from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. We measure the tax benefits and expenses recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements from such a position based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
At March 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, we maintained a liability for income taxes for uncertain tax positions of approximately $124,000 and $122,000, respectively, of which $32,000 and $30,000 respectively, represent penalties and interest and are recorded in the “other liabilities” section of the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Interest and penalties associated with tax positions are recorded in the period assessed as general and administrative expenses. Our tax returns for tax years subject to examination by tax authorities include 2011 through the current period for state and federal reporting purposes.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per common share is computed by giving effect to all potentially dilutive common shares including preferred stock, restricted stock, and stock options.
The following table summarizes the potential shares of common stock that were excluded from diluted net loss per share, because the effect of including these potential shares was anti-dilutive:
We account for share based payments by recognizing compensation expense based upon the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant. We determined the estimated grant-date fair value of restricted shares using quoted market prices and the grant-date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and recognize compensation costs ratably over the period of service using the straight-line method.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Items subject to significant estimates and assumptions include the allowance for doubtful accounts, share-based compensation arrangements, fair value of stock options, useful lives and realizability of long-lived assets, classification of deferred revenue and deferred franchise costs and the related deferred tax assets and liabilities as long-term or current, uncertain tax positions, realizability of deferred tax assets and purchase price allocations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The new standard becomes effective for us on January 1, 2017. Early adoption is not permitted. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or cumulative effect transition method. Recent tentative decisions by the FASB may delay the effective date of this ASU and some of its other provisions. We are evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. We have not yet selected a transition method nor have we determined the effect of the standard on our ongoing financial reporting.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, "Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern: Disclosures about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern." The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued. An entity must provide certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The new guidance is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2014-15 on our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-03, “Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs.” The update requires debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability instead of being presented as an asset. Debt disclosures will include the face amount of the debt liability and the effective interest rate. The update requires retrospective application and represents a change in accounting principle. The update is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted for financial statements that have not been previously issued. ASU 2015-03 is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef