Note 1 - Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements Disclosure and Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
Note 1: Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Operations
The Joint Corp. (“The Joint”), a Delaware corporation, was formed on March 10, 2010, for the purpose of franchising chiropractic clinics, selling regional developer rights and supporting the operations of franchised chiropractic clinics at locations throughout the United States of America. The franchising of chiropractic clinics is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and various state authorities.
The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (“Clinic”), an Arizona limited liability company, was formed on July 14, 2010, for the purpose of operating chiropractic clinics in the state of Arizona. It operated one company-owned clinic the assets of which were sold on July 1, 2012. All remaining account balances were consolidated with The Joint as of December 31, 2012.
We completed our initial public offering of 3,000,000 shares of common stock at a price to the public of $6.50 per share on November 14, 2014, whereupon we received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $17,065,000 after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and other offering expenses. Our underwriters exercised their option to purchase 450,000 additional shares of common stock to cover over-allotments on November 18, 2014, pursuant to which we received aggregate net proceeds of approximately $2,710,000, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and expenses. Also, in conjunction with the IPO, we issued warrants to the underwriters for the purchase of 90,000 shares of common stock, which can be exercised between November 10, 2015 and November 10, 2018 at an exercise price of $8.125 per share.
The following table summarizes the number of clinics in operation for years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Joint Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (collectively, the “Company”).
All significant intercompany accounts and transactions between The Joint Corp. and its subsidiary have been eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash. We continually monitor our positions with, and credit quality of, the financial institutions with which we invest. As of the balance sheet date and periodically throughout the year, we have maintained balances in various operating accounts in excess of federally insured limits. We have invested substantially all of the proceeds of our IPO in short-term bank deposits. We had no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2014 and 2013.
Restricted cash held by the Company relates to cash franchisees are required to contribute to our National Marketing Fund and cash franchisees provide to various voluntary regional Co-Op Marketing Funds. Cash contributed to the National Marketing Fund is to be used in accordance with the Franchise Disclosure Document with a focus on regional and national marketing and advertising.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
In certain circumstances, we grant credit to franchisees related to the collection of initial franchise fees, royalties, and other operating revenues. We periodically perform credit analysis and monitor the financial condition of the franchisees to reduce credit risk. As of December 31, 2014 and 2013, six and two franchisees, respectfully, represented 56% and 54% of outstanding accounts receivable. We did not have any franchisees that represented greater than 10% of our revenues during the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
Accounts receivable represent amounts due from franchisees for initial franchise fees, royalty fees and marketing and advertising expenses. We consider a reserve for doubtful accounts based on the creditworthiness of the franchisee. The provision for uncollectible amounts is continually reviewed and adjusted to maintain the allowance at a level considered adequate to cover future losses. The allowance is management’s best estimate of uncollectible amounts and is determined based on specific identification and historical performance we track on an ongoing basis. The losses ultimately could differ materially in the near term from the amounts estimated in determining the allowance. We determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was not necessary at December 31, 2013. As of December 31, 2014, we had an allowance for doubtful accounts of $81,032.
Deferred Franchise Costs
Deferred franchise costs represent commissions that are paid in conjunction with the sale of a franchise and are expensed when the respective revenue is recognized, which is generally upon the opening of a clinic.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; major renewals and improvements are capitalized. When items of property or equipment are sold or retired, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in other income.
We capitalize most software development costs. These capitalized costs are primarily related to proprietary software used by clinics for operations and the Company for management of operations. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct and incremental, are capitalized as assets in progress until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Software developed is recorded as part of property and equipment. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internal use software is amortized on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life, generally 5 years.
Intangible assets consist primarily of re-acquired franchise rights, and customer relationships. We amortize the fair value of re-acquired franchise rights over the remaining contractual terms of the re-acquired franchise rights at the time of the acquisition, which was 7 years. The fair value of customer relationships is amortized over their estimated useful life of 2 years.
As of December 31, 2014, we had recorded goodwill of $677,204. Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of tangible and identifiable intangible net assets acquired in the acquisition of six franchises on December 31, 2014 (See Note 2). Under FASB ASC 350-10, goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are no longer amortized but are subject to annual impairment tests, and tests between annual tests in certain circumstances, based on estimated fair value in accordance with FASB ASC 350-10, and written down when impaired.
We review our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recovered. We look primarily to undiscounted future cash flows in our assessment of whether or not long-lived assets have been impaired. No impairments of long-lived assets were recorded for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.
We have established an advertising fund for national/regional marketing and advertising of services offered by the clinics owned by the franchisees. As stipulated in the typical franchise agreement, a franchisee, in addition to the monthly royalty fee, pays a monthly marketing fee of 1% of gross sales, which increased at our discretion to 2% in January 2015. We segregate the marketing funds collected and use the funds for specific purposes as outlined in the Franchise Disclosure Document. These funds are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheet. As amounts are expended from the fund, we recognize advertising fund revenue and a related expense. Amounts collected in excess of marketing expenditures are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets.
Co-Op Marketing Funds
Some franchises have established regional Co-Ops for advertising within their local and regional markets. We maintain an agency relationship under which the marketing funds collected are segregated and used for the purposes specified by the Co-Ops officers. The marketing funds are included in restricted cash on our consolidated balance sheets.
The Company leases its office space and company-owned clinics under operating leases, which may include rent holidays and rent escalation clauses. The Company recognizes rent holiday periods and scheduled rent increases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company records tenant improvement allowances as deferred rent liabilities and amortizes the allowance over the term of the lease, as a reduction to rent expense.
We generate revenue through initial franchise fees, regional developer fees, transfer fees, royalties, IT related income, and computer software fees.
Initial Franchise Fees. We require the entire non-refundable initial franchise fee to be paid upon execution of a franchise agreement, which has an initial term of ten years. Initial franchise fees are recognized as revenue when we have substantially completed our initial services under the franchise agreement, which typically occurs upon opening of the clinic. Our services under the franchise agreement include: training of franchisee and staff, site selection, construction/vendor management and ongoing operations support. We provide no financing to franchisees or offer guarantees on their behalf.
Regional Developer Fees. During 2011, we established a regional developer program to engage independent contractors to assist in developing specified geographical regions. Under this program, regional developers pay a license fee of 25% of the then current franchise fee for each franchise they receive the right to develop within a specified geographical region. Each regional developer agreement establishes a minimum number of franchises that the regional developer must develop. Regional developers receive 50% of franchise fees collected upon the sale of franchises within their region and a royalty of 3% of sales generated by franchised clinics in their region. Regional developer fees are non-refundable and are recognized as revenue when we have performed substantially all initial services required by the regional developer agreement, which generally is considered to be upon the opening of each franchised clinic. Upon the execution of a regional developer agreement, we estimate the number of franchised clinics to be opened, which is typically consistent with the contracted minimum. When we anticipate that the number of franchised clinics to be opened will exceed the contracted minimum, the license fee on a per-clinic basis is determined by dividing the total fee collected from the regional developer by the number of clinics expected to be opened within the region. Certain regional developer agreements provide that no additional fee is required for franchises developed by the regional developer above the contracted minimum, while other regional developer agreements require a supplemental payment. We reassess the number of clinics expected to be opened as the regional developer performs under its regional developer agreement. When a material change to the original estimate becomes apparent, the fee per clinic is revised on a prospective basis, and the unrecognized fees are allocated among, and recognized as revenue upon the opening of, the remaining unopened franchised clinics within the region. The franchisor’s services under regional developer agreements include site selection, grand opening support for two clinics, sales support for identification of qualified franchisees, general operational support and marketing support to advertise for ownership opportunities. Several of our regional developer agreements grant us the option to repurchase the regional developer’s license.
Royalties. We collect royalties, as stipulated in the franchise agreement, equal to 7% of gross sales, and a marketing and advertising fee currently of 1% of gross sales. Certain franchisees with franchise agreements acquired during the formation of the Company pay a monthly flat fee. Royalties are recognized as revenue when earned. Royalties are collected bi-monthly two working days after each sales period has ended.
IT Related Income and Software Fees. We collect a monthly computer software fee for use of our proprietary chiropractic software, computer support, and internet services support, which was made available to all clinics in April 2012. These fees are recognized on a monthly basis as services are provided. IT related revenue represents a flat fee to purchase a clinic’s computer equipment, operating software, preinstalled chiropractic system software, key card scanner (patient identification card), credit card scanner and credit card receipt printer. These fees are recognized as revenue upon receipt of equipment by the franchisee.
We incur advertising costs in addition to those included in the advertising fund. Our policy is to expense all operating advertising costs as incurred. Advertising expenses for years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 were $145,492 and $323,219, respectively.
We account for income taxes in accordance with the Accounting Standards Codification that requires the recognition of deferred income taxes for differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. The differences relate principally to depreciation of property and equipment and treatment of revenue for franchise fees and regional developer fees collected. Deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax consequence for those differences, which will either be taxable or deductible when the assets and liabilities are recovered or settled. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
We account for uncertainty in income taxes by recognizing the tax benefit or expense from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. We measure the tax benefits and expenses recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such a position based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
For the year ended December 31, 2014 and, 2013, we recorded a liability for income taxes for operations and uncertain tax positions of approximately $122,000 and $148,000, respectively, of which $30,000 and $33,000 respectively, represent penalties and interest and recorded in the “other liabilities” section of the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Interest and penalties associated with tax positions are recorded in the period assessed as general and administrative expenses. Our tax returns for tax years subject to examination by tax authorities include 2010 and 2011 through the current period for state and federal reporting purposes, respectively.
Earnings (Loss) per Common Share
Basic earnings (loss) per common share is computed by dividing the net earnings (loss) by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings (loss) per common share is computed by giving effect to all potentially dilutive common shares including preferred stock, restricted stock, and stock options.
The following table summarizes the potential shares of common stock that were excluded from diluted net loss per share, because the effect of including these potential shares was anti-dilutive:
We account for share based payments by recognizing compensation expense based upon the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant. We determined the estimated grant-date fair value of restricted shares using quoted market prices and the grant-date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and recognize compensation costs ratably over the period of service using the straight-line method.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Items subject to significant estimates and assumptions include the allowance for doubtful accounts, share-based compensation arrangements, fair value of stock options, useful lives and realizability of long-lived assets, classification of deferred revenue and deferred franchise costs and the related deferred tax assets and liabilities as long-term or current, uncertain tax positions and realizability of deferred tax assets.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASU 2014-09), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle, and in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP. The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods therein, using either of the following transition methods: (i) a full retrospective approach reflecting the application of the standard in each prior reporting period with the option to elect certain practical expedients, or (ii) a retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially adopting ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of adoption (which includes additional footnote disclosures). We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, "Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern: Disclosures about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern." The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued. An entity must provide certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The new guidance is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods thereafter. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2014-15 on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef