Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
These unaudited financial statements represent the condensed consolidated financial statements of The Joint Corp. (“The Joint”), its variable interest entities (“VIEs”), and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (collectively, the “Company”). The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements reflect all adjustments which are necessary for a fair statement of the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Such unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the instructions to Form 10-Q pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with The Joint Corp. and Subsidiary and Affiliates consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto as set forth in The Joint’s Form 10-K, which included all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The results of operations for the periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 are not necessarily indicative of expected operating results for the full year. The information presented throughout the document as of and for the periods ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 is unaudited.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amount of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs, expenses and other (expenses) income that are reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying disclosures. These estimates are based on management’s best knowledge of current events, historical experience, actions that the Company may undertake in the future and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. As a result, actual results may be different from these estimates. For a discussion of significant estimates and judgments made in recognizing revenue, accounting for leases, and accounting for income taxes, see Note 1, "Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies".
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Joint and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC, which was dormant for all periods presented. The Company consolidates VIEs in which the Company is the primary beneficiary in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 810, Consolidations (“ASC 810”). Non-controlling interests represent third-party equity ownership interests in VIEs. All significant inter-affiliate accounts and transactions between The Joint and its VIEs have been eliminated in consolidation.
Net income and comprehensive income are the same for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020.
Nature of Operations
The Joint Corp., a Delaware corporation, was formed on March 10, 2010 for the principal purpose of franchising, developing, selling regional developer rights, supporting the operations of franchised chiropractic clinics, and operating and managing corporate chiropractic clinics at locations throughout the United States of America. The franchising of chiropractic clinics is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and various state authorities.
The following table summarizes the number of clinics in operation under franchise agreements and as company-owned or managed clinics for the three months ended March 31, 2021 and 2020:
Variable Interest Entities
An entity deemed to be the primary beneficiary of a VIE is required to consolidate the VIE in its financial statements. An entity is deemed to be the primary beneficiary of a VIE if it has both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE's economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb the majority of losses of the VIE or the right to receive the majority of benefits from the VIE.
Certain states prohibit the “corporate practice of medicine,” which restricts business corporations from practicing chiropractic care through the direct employment of chiropractic doctors or from exercising control over clinical decisions by chiropractic doctors. In states which prohibit the corporate practice of medicine, the Company typically enters into long-term management agreements with professional corporations ("PCs") that are owned by licensed chiropractic doctors, which, in turn, employ or contract with doctors who provide professional chiropractic care in its clinics. Under these management agreements with PCs, the Company provides, on an exclusive basis, all non-clinical services of the chiropractic practice. Such PCs are VIEs, as fees paid by the PCs to the Company as its management service provider are considered variable interests because they are liabilities on the PC’s books and the fees do not meet all the following criteria: 1) The fees are compensation for services provided and are commensurate with the level of effort required to provide those services; 2) The decision maker or service provider does not hold other interests in the VIE that individually, or in the aggregate, would absorb more than an insignificant amount of the VIE’s expected losses or receive more than an insignificant amount of the VIE’s expected residual returns; 3) The service arrangement includes only terms, conditions, or amounts that are customarily present in arrangements for similar services negotiated at arm’s length. The Company assessed the governance structure and operating procedures of the PCs and determined that the Company has the power to control certain significant non-clinical activities of the PCs, as defined by ASC 810. Therefore, the Company is the primary beneficiary of the VIEs, and per ASC 810, must consolidate the VIEs. The carrying amount of VIE assets and liabilities are immaterial as of March 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020, except for amounts collected in advance for membership
and wellness packages, which are recorded as deferred revenue. The VIE's deferred revenue liability balance as of March 31, 2021, and December 31, 2020 was $2.7 million and $2.6 million, respectively.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company continually monitors its positions with, and credit quality of, the financial institutions with which it invests. As of the balance sheet date and periodically throughout the period, the Company has maintained balances in various operating accounts in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has invested substantially all its cash in short-term bank deposits. The Company had no cash equivalents as of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
Restricted cash relates to cash that franchisees and company-owned or managed clinics contribute to the Company’s National Marketing Fund and cash that franchisees provide to various voluntary regional Co-Op Marketing Funds. Cash contributed by franchisees to the National Marketing Fund is to be used in accordance with the Company’s Franchise Disclosure Document with a focus on regional and national marketing and advertising. While such cash balance is not legally-segregated and restricted as to withdrawal or usage, the Company's accounting policy is to classify these funds as restricted cash.
Accounts receivable primarily represent amounts due from franchisees for royalty fees. The Company considers a reserve for doubtful accounts based on the creditworthiness of the entity. The provision for uncollectible amounts is continually reviewed and adjusted to maintain the allowance at a level considered adequate to cover future losses. The allowance is management’s best estimate of uncollectible amounts and is determined based on specific identification and historical performance that the Company tracks on an ongoing basis. Actual losses ultimately could differ materially in the near term from the amounts estimated in determining the allowance. As of March 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had an allowance for doubtful accounts of $0.
Deferred Franchise Costs and Regional Development Costs
Deferred franchise and regional development costs represent commissions that are direct and incremental to the Company and are paid in conjunction with the sale of a franchise license or regional development rights. These costs are recognized as an expense, in franchise and regional development cost of revenues when the respective revenue is recognized, which is generally over the term of the related franchise or regional development agreement.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost or for property acquired as part of franchise acquisitions at fair value at the date of closing. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives of to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; major renewals and improvements are capitalized. When items of property or equipment are sold or retired, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in income.
The Company capitalizes certain software development costs. These capitalized costs are primarily related to software used by clinics for operations and by the Company for the management of operations. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct, are capitalized as assets in progress until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. The Company also capitalizes costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Software developed is recorded as part of property and equipment. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internal use software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, which is generally to five years.
The FASB issued in August 2018 an update to accounting guidance related to implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. The update aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred under such arrangements with the requirements for capitalizing costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. Accordingly, implementation costs incurred in connection with a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract are capitalized and such costs were included in prepaid expenses in the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet.
The Company leases property and equipment under operating and finance leases. The Company leases its corporate office space and the space for each of the company-owned or managed clinics in the portfolio. The Company recognizes a right-of-use ("ROU") asset and lease liability for all leases. Determining the lease term and amount of lease payments to include in the calculation of the ROU asset and lease liability for leases containing options requires the use of judgment to determine whether the exercise of an option is reasonably certain and if the optional period and payments should be included in the calculation of the associated ROU asset and liability. In making this determination, all relevant economic factors are considered that would compel the Company to exercise or not exercise an option. When available, the Company uses the rate implicit in the lease to discount lease payments; however, the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable for substantially all of its leases. In such cases, the Company estimates its incremental borrowing rate as the interest rate it would pay to borrow an amount equal to the lease payments over a similar term, with similar collateral as in the lease, and in a similar economic environment. The Company estimates these rates using available evidence such as rates imposed by third-party lenders to the Company in recent financings or observable risk-free interest rate and credit spreads for commercial debt of a similar duration, with credit spreads correlating to the Company’s estimated creditworthiness.
For operating leases that include rent holidays and rent escalation clauses, the Company recognizes lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term from the date it takes possession of the leased property. Pre-opening costs are recorded as incurred in general and administrative expenses. The Company records the straight-line lease expense and any contingent rent, if applicable, in general and administrative expenses on the condensed consolidated income statements. Many of the Company’s leases also require it to pay real estate taxes, common area maintenance costs and other occupancy costs which are also included in general and administrative expenses on the condensed consolidated income statements.
Intangible assets consist primarily of re-acquired franchise and regional developer rights and customer relationships. The Company amortizes the fair value of re-acquired franchise rights over the remaining contractual terms of the re-acquired franchise rights at the time of the acquisition, which generally range from to eight years. In the case of regional developer rights, the Company generally amortizes the re-acquired regional developer rights over to seven years. The fair value of customer relationships is amortized over their estimated useful life of to four years.
Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in the acquisitions of franchises. Goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized but are subject to annual impairment tests. As required, the Company performs an annual impairment test of goodwill as of the first day of the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value.
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recovered. The Company looks primarily to estimated undiscounted future cash flows in its assessment of whether or not long-lived assets are recoverable. The Company records an impairment loss when the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value. During the three months ended March 31, 2021, certain operating lease right-of-use assets related to closed clinics with a total carrying amount of $0.5 million was written down to its fair value of $0.4 million. As a result, the Company recorded a noncash impairment loss of approximately $0.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2021. No impairments of long-lived assets were recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2020.
The Company has established an advertising fund for national or regional marketing and advertising of services offered by its clinics. The monthly marketing fee is 2% of clinic sales. The Company segregates the marketing funds collected which are included in restricted cash on its consolidated balance sheets. As amounts are expended from the fund, the Company recognizes a related expense.
Co-Op Marketing Funds
Some franchises have established regional Co-Ops for advertising within their local and regional markets. The Company maintains a custodial relationship under which the marketing funds collected are segregated and used for the purposes specified by the Co-Ops’ officers. The marketing funds are included in restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The Company generates revenue primarily through its company-owned and managed clinics, royalties, franchise fees, advertising fund contributions, IT related income and computer software fees from our franchisees.
Revenues from Company-Owned or Managed Clinics. The Company earns revenues from clinics that it owns and operates or manages throughout the United States. In those states where the Company owns and operates or manages the clinic, revenues are recognized when services are performed. The Company offers a variety of membership and wellness packages which feature discounted pricing as compared with its single-visit pricing. Amounts collected in advance for membership and wellness packages are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized when the service is performed. Any unused visits associated with monthly memberships are recognized on a month-to-month basis. The Company recognizes a contract liability (or a deferred revenue liability) related to the prepaid treatment plans for which the Company has an ongoing performance obligation. The Company recognizes this contract liability, and recognizes revenue, as the patient consumes his or her visits related to the package and the Company transfers its services. Based on a historical lag analysis and an evaluation of legal obligation by jurisdiction, the Company concluded that any remaining contract liability that exists after 12 to 24 months from transaction date will be deemed breakage. Breakage revenue is recognized only at that point, when the likelihood of the patient exercising his or her remaining rights becomes remote.
Royalties and Advertising Fund Revenue. The Company collects royalties from its franchisees, as stipulated in the franchise agreement, equal to 7% of gross sales and a marketing and advertising fee currently equal to 2% of gross sales. Royalties, including franchisee contributions to advertising funds, are calculated as a percentage of clinic sales over the term of the franchise agreement. The revenue accounting standard provides an exception for the recognition of sales-based royalties promised in exchange for a license (which generally requires reporting entity to estimate the amount of variable consideration to which it will be entitled in the transaction price). As the franchise agreement royalties, inclusive of advertising fund contributions, represent sales-based royalties that are related entirely to the Company’s performance obligation under the franchise agreement, such royalties are recognized as franchisee clinic level sales occur. Royalties are collected semi-monthly, two working days after each sales period has ended.
Franchise Fees. The Company requires the entire non-refundable initial franchise fee to be paid upon execution of a franchise agreement, which typically has an initial term of ten years. Initial franchise fees are recognized ratably on a straight-line basis over the term of the franchise agreement. The Company’s services under the franchise agreement include: training of franchisees and staff, site selection, construction/vendor management and ongoing operations support. The Company provides no financing to franchisees and offers no guarantees on their behalf. The services provided by the Company are highly interrelated with the franchise license and as such are considered to represent a single performance obligation.
Software Fees. The Company collects a monthly fee from its franchisees for use of its proprietary chiropractic software, computer support, and internet services support. These fees are recognized ratably on a straight-line basis over the term of the respective franchise agreement.
Regional Developer Fees. The Company has a regional developer program where regional developers are granted exclusive geographical territory and commit to a minimum development obligation within that defined territory. Regional developer fees paid to the Company are non-refundable and are recognized as revenue ratably on a straight-line basis over the term of the regional developer agreement, which is considered to begin upon the execution of the agreement. The Company’s services under regional developer agreements include site selection, grand opening support for the clinics, sales support for identification of qualified franchisees, general operational support and marketing support to advertise for ownership opportunities. The services provided by the Company are highly interrelated with the development of the territory and the resulting franchise licenses sold by
the regional developer and as such are considered to represent a single performance obligation. In addition, regional developers receive fees which are funded by the initial franchise fees collected from franchisees upon the sale of franchises within their exclusive geographical territory and a royalty of 3% of sales generated by franchised clinics in their exclusive geographical territory. Fees related to the sale of franchises within their exclusive geographical territory are initially deferred as deferred franchise costs and are recognized as an expense in franchise cost of revenues when the respective revenue is recognized, which is generally over the term of the related franchise agreement. Royalties of 3% of sales generated by franchised clinics in their regions are also recognized as franchise cost of revenues as franchisee clinic level sales occur, which is funded by the 7% royalties collected from the franchisees in their regions. Certain regional developer agreements result in the regional developer acquiring the rights to existing royalty streams from clinics already open in the respective territory. In those instances, the revenue associated from the sale of the royalty stream is recognized over the remaining life of the respective franchise agreements.
The Company entered into one regional developer agreement during the three months ended March 31, 2020 for which it received approximately $201,000. This fee was deferred as of the transaction date and is recognized as revenue ratably on a straight-line basis over the term of the regional developer agreement, which is considered to begin upon the execution of the agreement. The company did not enter into any new regional developer agreements during the three months ended March 31, 2021.
Advertising costs are advertising and marketing expenses incurred by the Company, primarily through advertising funds.
The Company expenses production costs of commercial advertising upon first airing and expenses the costs of communicating
the advertising in the period in which the advertising occurs. Advertising expenses were $850,656 and $658,673 for the three months ended March 31, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
Income tax expense during interim periods is based on applying an estimated annual effective income tax rate to year-to-date pre-tax income, plus any significant unusual or infrequently occurring items which are recorded in the interim period. The computation of the annual estimated effective tax rate at each interim period requires certain estimates and significant judgment including, but not limited to, the expected pre-tax income for the year and permanent differences. The accounting estimates used to compute the provision for income taxes may change as new events occur, more experience is obtained, additional information becomes known or as the tax environment changes.
Earnings per Common Share
Basic earnings per common share is computed by dividing the net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per common share is computed by giving effect to all potentially dilutive common shares including restricted stock and stock options.
Potentially dilutive securities excluded from the calculation of diluted net income per common share as the effect would be anti-dilutive were as follows:
The Company accounts for share-based payments by recognizing compensation expense based upon the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The Company determines the estimated grant-date fair value of restricted shares using the closing price on the date of the grant and the grant-date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes-Merton model. In order to calculate the fair value of the options, certain assumptions are made regarding the components of the model, including risk-free interest rate, volatility, expected dividend yield and expected option life. Changes to the assumptions could cause significant adjustments to the valuation. The Company recognizes compensation costs ratably over the period of service using the straight-line method. Forfeitures are estimated based on historical and forecasted turnover, which is approximately 5%.
Retirement Benefit Plan
Employees of the Company are eligible to participate in a defined contribution retirement plan, the Joint Corp. 401(k). Retirement Plan (“401(k) Plan”), under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. Under the 401(k) Plan, employees may contribute their eligible compensation, not to exceed the annual limits set by the IRS. The 401(k) Plan allows the Company to match participants’ contributions in an amount determined at the sole discretion of the Company.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Items subject to significant estimates and assumptions include the allowance for doubtful accounts, share-based compensation arrangements, fair value of stock options, useful lives and realizability of long-lived assets, classification of deferred revenue and revenue recognition related to breakage, classification of deferred franchise costs, calculation of ROU assets and liabilities related to leases, realizability of deferred tax assets, impairment of goodwill, intangible assets, and other long-lived assets, and purchase price allocations and related valuations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments" and subsequent amendments to the initial guidance: ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04 and ASU 2019-05 (collectively, “Topic 326”). Topic 326 requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. Topic 326 becomes effective on January 1, 2023 for the Company. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of Topic 326 on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef