Note 1 - Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2016
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements Disclosure and Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
Note 1: Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
These unaudited financial statements represent the condensed consolidated financial statements of The Joint Corp. (“The Joint”), and its wholly owned subsidiary The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC (collectively, the “Company”). These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with The Joint Corp. and Subsidiary consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto as set forth in The Joint Corp.’s Form 10-K, which included all disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles. In the opinion of management, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments necessary to present fairly our financial position on a consolidated basis and the consolidated results of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. The results of operations for the periods ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 are not necessarily indicative of expected operating results for the full year. The information presented throughout the document as of and for the periods ended September 30, 2016 and 2015 is unaudited.
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of The Joint Corp. and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Joint Corporate Unit No. 1, LLC, which was dormant for all periods presented.
All significant intercompany accounts and transactions between The Joint Corp. and its subsidiary have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain balances were reclassified from selling and marketing expenses to general and administrative expenses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 to conform to current year presentation.
Net loss and comprehensive loss are the same for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
Nature of Operations
The Joint, a Delaware corporation, was formed on March 10, 2010 for the principal purpose of franchising and developing chiropractic clinics, selling regional developer rights and supporting the operations of franchised chiropractic clinics at locations throughout the United States of America. The franchising of chiropractic clinics is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and various state authorities.
The following table summarizes the number of clinics in operation under franchise agreements and as company-owned or managed clinics for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015:
Variable Interest Entities
An entity deemed to hold the controlling interest in a voting interest entity or deemed to be the primary beneficiary of a variable interest entity (“VIE”) is required to consolidate the VIE in its financial statements. An entity is deemed to be the primary beneficiary of a VIE if it has both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the VIE's economic performance and (b) the obligation to absorb the majority of losses of the VIE or the right to receive the majority of benefits from the VIE. Investments where the Company does not hold the controlling interest and are not the primary beneficiary are accounted for under the equity method.
Certain states in which the Company manages clinics regulate the practice of chiropractic care and require that chiropractic services be provided by legal entities organized under state laws as professional corporations or PCs. Such PCs are VIEs. In these states, the Company has entered into management services agreements with PCs under which the Company provides, on an exclusive basis, all non-clinical services of the chiropractic practice. The Company has analyzed its relationship with the PCs and has determined that the Company does not have the power to direct the activities of the PCs. As such, the activity of the PCs is not included in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company continually monitors its positions with, and credit quality of, the financial institutions with which it invests. As of the balance sheet date and periodically throughout the period, the Company has maintained balances in various operating accounts in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has invested substantially all of its cash in short-term bank deposits. The Company had no cash equivalents as of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015.
Restricted cash relates to cash franchisees and company-owned or managed clinics contribute to the Company’s National Marketing Fund and cash franchisees provide to various voluntary regional Co-Op Marketing Funds. Cash contributed by franchisees to the National Marketing Fund is to be used in accordance with the Company’s Franchise Disclosure Document with a focus on regional and national marketing and advertising.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
From time to time, the Company grants credit in the normal course of business to franchisees and PCs related to the collection of royalties, and other operating revenues. The Company periodically performs credit analysis and monitors the financial condition of the franchisees and PCs to reduce credit risk. As of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, three PC entities and six franchisees represented 52% and 31%, respectively, of outstanding accounts receivable. The Company did not have any customers that represented greater than 10% of its revenues during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
Accounts receivable represent amounts due from franchisees for initial franchise fees, royalty fees, working capital advances due from PCs, and tenant improvement allowances due from landlords. The Company considers a reserve for doubtful accounts based on the creditworthiness of the entity. The provision for uncollectible amounts is continually reviewed and adjusted to maintain the allowance at a level considered adequate to cover future losses. The allowance is management’s best estimate of uncollectible amounts and is determined based on specific identification and historical performance that the Company tracks on an ongoing basis. Actual losses ultimately could differ materially in the near term from the amounts estimated in determining the allowance. As of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company had an allowance for doubtful accounts of $131,830 and $142,660, respectively.
Deferred Franchise Costs
Deferred franchise costs represent commissions that are paid in conjunction with the sale of a franchise and are expensed when the respective revenue is recognized, which is generally upon the opening of a clinic.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost or for property acquired as part of franchise acquisitions at fair value at the date of closing. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over estimated useful lives of three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred; major renewals and improvements are capitalized. When items of property or equipment are sold or retired, the related cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any gain or loss is included in income.
The Company capitalizes certain software development costs. These capitalized costs are primarily related to proprietary software used by clinics for operations and by the Company for the management of operations. Costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development are expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs, if direct, are capitalized as assets in progress until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. The Company also capitalizes costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Software developed is recorded as part of property and equipment. Maintenance and training costs are expensed as incurred. Internal use software is amortized on a straight line basis over its estimated useful life, generally five years.
Intangible assets consist primarily of re-acquired franchise and regional developer rights and customer relationships. The Company amortizes the fair value of re-acquired franchise rights over the remaining contractual terms of the re-acquired franchise rights at the time of the acquisition, which range from six to eight years. In the case of regional developer rights the Company amortizes the acquired regional developer rights over seven years. The fair value of customer relationships is amortized over their estimated useful life of two years.
Goodwill consists of the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in the acquisitions discussed in Note 2. Goodwill and intangible assets deemed to have indefinite lives are not amortized but are subject to annual impairment tests. As required, the Company performs an annual impairment test of goodwill as of the first day of the fourth quarter or more frequently if events or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. No impairments of goodwill were recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recovered. The Company looks primarily to estimated undiscounted future cash flows in its assessment of whether or not long-lived assets have been impaired. No impairments of long-lived assets were recorded for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.
The Company has established an advertising fund for national/regional marketing and advertising of services offered by its clinics. The monthly marketing fee is 2% of clinic sales. The Company segregates the marketing funds collected which are included in restricted cash on its consolidated balance sheets. As amounts are expended from the fund, the Company recognizes advertising fund revenue and a related expense. Amounts collected in excess of marketing expenditures are included in restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Co-Op Marketing Funds
Some franchises have established regional Co-Ops for advertising within their local and regional markets. The Company maintains a custodial relationship under which the marketing funds collected are segregated and used for the purposes specified by the Co-Ops’ officers. The marketing funds are included in restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.
The Company leases office space for its corporate offices and company-owned or managed clinics under operating leases, which may include rent holidays and rent escalation clauses. It recognizes rent holiday periods and scheduled rent increases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company records tenant improvement allowances as deferred rent and amortizes the allowance over the term of the lease, as a reduction to rent expense.
The Company generates revenue through initial franchise fees, regional developer fees, royalties, advertising fund revenue, IT related income, and computer software fees, and from its company-owned and managed clinics.
Franchise Fees.The Company requires the entire non-refundable initial franchise fee to be paid upon execution of a franchise agreement, which typically has an initial term of ten years. Initial franchise fees are recognized as revenue when the Company has substantially completed its initial services under the franchise agreement, which typically occurs upon opening of the clinic. The Company’s services under the franchise agreement include: training of franchisees and staff, site selection, construction/vendor management and ongoing operations support. The Company provides no financing to franchisees and offers no guarantees on their behalf.
Regional Developer Fees. During 2011, the Company established a regional developer program to engage independent contractors to assist in developing specified geographical regions. Under this program, regional developers pay a license fee ranging from $7,250 to 25% of the then current franchise fee for each franchise they receive the right to develop within the region. Each regional developer agreement establishes a minimum number of franchises that the regional developer must develop. Regional developers receive fees ranging from $14,500 to $19,950, which are collected upon the sale of franchises within their region, and a royalty of 3% of sales generated by franchised clinics in their region. Regional developer license fees are non-refundable and are recognized as revenue when the Company has performed substantially all initial services required by the regional developer agreement, which generally is considered to be upon the opening of each franchised clinic. Upon the execution of a regional developer agreement, the Company estimates the number of franchised clinics to be opened, which is typically consistent with the contracted minimum. When the Company anticipates that the number of franchised clinics to be opened will exceed the contracted minimum, the license fee on a per-clinic basis is determined by dividing the total fee collected from the regional developer by the revised number of clinics expected to be opened within the region. Certain regional developer agreements provide that no additional fee is required for franchises developed by the regional developer above the contracted minimum, while other regional developer agreements require a supplemental payment. The Company reassesses the number of clinics expected to be opened as the regional developer performs under its regional developer agreement. When a material change to the original estimate becomes apparent, the fee per clinic is revised on a prospective basis, and the unrecognized fees are allocated among, and recognized as revenue upon the opening of, the expected remaining unopened franchised clinics within the region. The regional developer’s services under regional developer agreements include site selection, grand opening support for the clinics, sales support for identification of qualified franchisees, general operational support and marketing support to advertise for ownership opportunities. Several of the regional developer agreements grant the Company the option to repurchase the regional developer’s license.
Revenues and Management Fees from Company Clinics.The Company earns revenues from clinics that it owns and operates or manages throughout the United States. In those states where the Company owns and operates the clinic, revenues are recognized when services are performed. The Company offers a variety of membership and wellness packages which feature discounted pricing as compared with its single-visit pricing. Amounts collected in advance for membership and wellness packages are recorded as deferred revenue and recognized when the service is performed. In other states where state law requires the chiropractic practice to be owned by a licensed chiropractor, the Company enters into a management agreement with the doctor’s PC. Under the management agreement, the Company provides administrative and business management services to the doctor’s PC in return for a monthly management fee. When the collectability of the full management fee is uncertain, the Company recognizes management fee revenue only to the extent of fees expected to be collected from the PCs.
Royalties.The Company collects royalties, as stipulated in the franchise agreement, equal to 7% of gross sales, and a marketing and advertising fee currently equal to 2% of gross sales. Certain franchisees with franchise agreements acquired during the formation of the Company pay a monthly flat fee. Royalties are recognized as revenue when earned. Royalties are collected bi-monthly two working days after each sales period has ended.
IT Related Income and Software Fees.The Company collects a monthly computer software fee for use of its proprietary chiropractic software, computer support, and internet services support. These fees are recognized on a monthly basis as services are provided. IT related revenue represents a flat fee to purchase a clinic’s computer equipment, operating software, preinstalled chiropractic system software, key card scanner (patient identification card), credit card scanner and credit card receipt printer. These fees are recognized as revenue upon receipt of equipment by the franchisee.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expenses were $600,804 and $1,770,699 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2016, respectively. Advertising expenses were $377,122 and $853,110 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, respectively.
The Company uses an estimated annual effective tax rate method in computing its interim tax provision. This effective tax rate is based on forecasted annual pre-tax income, permanent tax differences and statutory tax rates. Deferred income taxes are recognized for differences between the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax purposes. The differences relate principally to depreciation of property and equipment and treatment of revenue for franchise fees and regional developer fees collected. Deferred tax assets and liabilities represent the future tax consequence for those differences, which will either be taxable or deductible when the assets and liabilities are recovered or settled. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes by recognizing the tax benefit or expense from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The Company measures the tax benefits and expenses recognized in the condensed consolidated financial statements from such a position based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution.
At September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, the Company maintained a liability for income taxes for uncertain tax positions of approximately $39,500 and $66,000, respectively, of which $26,000 and $33,000, respectively, represent penalties and interest and are recorded in the “other liabilities” section of the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets. Interest and penalties associated with tax positions are recorded in the period assessed as general and administrative expenses. The Company’s tax returns for tax years subject to examination by tax authorities include 2011 through the current period for state and 2012 through the current period for federal reporting purposes.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted loss per common share is computed by giving effect to all potentially dilutive common shares including preferred stock, restricted stock, and stock options.
The Company accounts for share based payments by recognizing compensation expense based upon the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant. The Company determines the estimated grant-date fair value of restricted shares using quoted market prices and the grant-date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In order to calculate the fair value of the options, certain assumptions are made regarding the components of the model, including the estimated fair value of underlying common stock, risk-free interest rate, volatility, expected dividend yield and expected option life. Prior to the Company’s initial public offering (“IPO”), the grant date fair value was determined by the Board of Directors. Changes to the assumptions could cause significant adjustments to the valuation. The Company recognizes compensation costs ratably over the period of service using the straight-line method.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Items subject to significant estimates and assumptions include the allowance for doubtful accounts, share-based compensation arrangements, fair value of stock options, useful lives and realizability of long-lived assets, classification of deferred revenue and deferred franchise costs, uncertain tax positions, realizability of deferred tax assets, impairment of goodwill and intangible assets and purchase price allocations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “
Revenue from Contracts with Customers”, which requires an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The ASU will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. The new standard becomes effective for the Company on January 1, 2018. The Company is evaluating the effect that ASU 2014-09 will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company has not yet selected a transition method nor has it determined the effect of the standard on its ongoing financial reporting.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, “
Presentation of Financial Statements - Going Concern: Disclosures about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern.” The new standard requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued. An entity must provide certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about the entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The new guidance is effective for the Company’s December 31, 2016 Form 10-K, and interim periods thereafter. The Company does not expect any changes to its consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows as a result of adoption of this standard, however, additional disclosures might be required in its financial statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “
Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10),” Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities, which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the effect of adoption of this standard, if any, on its consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “
Leases (Topic 842).” The ASU requires that substantially all operating leases be recognized as assets and liabilities on the Company’s balance sheet, which is a significant departure from the current standard, which classifies operating leases as off balance sheet transactions and accounts for only the current year operating lease expense in the statement of operations. The right to use the leased property is to be capitalized as an asset and the expected lease payments over the life of the lease will be accounted for as a liability. The effective date is for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2018. While the Company has not yet quantified the impact this standard will have on its financial statements, it will result in a significant increase in the asset and liabilities reflected on the Company’s balance sheet and in the interest expense and depreciation and amortization expense reflected in its statement of operations, while reducing the amount of rent expense. This could potentially decrease the Company’s reported net income.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, “
Compensation - Stock Compensation: Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (“ASU 2016-09”), which amends ASC Topic 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). The standard is intended to simplify several areas of accounting for share-based compensation arrangements, including the accounting for income taxes, classification of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flows, forfeitures, statutory tax withholding requirements, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification of employee taxes paid on the statement of cash flows when an employer withholds shares for tax-withholding purposes. ASU 2016-09 is effective for interim and annual reporting periods beginning January 1, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the method of adoption and impact the update will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10, “
Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing”, to clarify the following two aspects of Topic 606: 1) identifying performance obligations, and 2) the licensing implementation guidance. The effective date and transition requirements for these amendments are the same as the effective date and transition requirements of ASU 2014-09. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.
In May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-12, “
Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients”, to clarify certain core recognition principles including collectability, sales tax presentation, noncash consideration, contract modifications and completed contracts at transition and disclosures no longer required if the full retrospective transition method is adopted. The effective date and transition requirements for these amendments are the same as the effective date and transition requirements of ASU 2014-09. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15,
“Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments”.This update addresses how certain cash inflows and outflows are classified in the statement of cash flows to eliminate existing diversity in practice. This update is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this amendment on its financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef